In the past quarter century the role of software in science has made a huge change in importance. I work in a computer research organization that employs many applied mathematicians. One would think that we have a little maelstrom of mathematical thought. **Very little actual mathematics takes place with most of them writing software as their prime activity. A great deal of emphasis is placed on software as something to be preserved or invested in.** This dynamic places a great deal of other forms of work on the backburner like mathematics (or modeling or algorithmic-methods investigation). The proper question to think about is whether the emphasis on software along with collateral decreases in focus on mathematics or physical modeling is a benefit to the conduct of science.

Doing mathematics should always mean finding patterns and crafting beautiful and meaningful explanations.

― Paul Lockhart

*I’ll focus on my wife’s favorite question, “what is code?”*(I put this up on a slide when she was in the audience, and she rolled her eyes at me and walked out). If we understand what exactly code is we can answer the question of whether it can be preserved and whether it is worthwhile to do.

The simplest answer to the question at hand is that code is a set of instructions that a computer can understand that provides a recipe provided by humans for conducting some calculations. These instructions could integrate a function, or a differential equations, sort some data out, filter an image, or millions of other things. **In every case the instructions are devised by humans to do something, and carried out by a computer with greater automation and speed than humans can possibly manage. Without the guidance of humans, the computer is utterly useless, but with human guidance it is a transformative tool**. We see modern society completely reshaped by the computer. Too often the focus of humans is on the tool and not the things that give it power, skillful human instructions devised by creative intellects. Dangerously, science is falling into this trap, and the misunderstanding of the true dynamic may have disastrous consequences for the state of progress. We must keep in mind the nature of computing and man’s key role in its utility.

Mathematics is the cheapest science. Unlike physics or chemistry, it does not require any expensive equipment. All one needs for mathematics is a pencil and paper.

― George Pólya

The manner of treating applied mathematics today serves as an instructive lesson in how out of balance the dynamic is today. Among the sciences mathematics may be the most purely thoughtful endeavor. Some have quipped that mathematics is the most cost efficient discipline, requiring nothing more than time, pen and paper. **Often massive progress happens without pen and paper whole the mathematical mind ponders and schemes about theorem, proof and conceptual breakthroughs**. Increasingly this idealized model is foreign to mathematicians and the desire for a more concrete product has taken hold. This is most keenly seen in the drive for software as a tangible end product.

Nothing is remotely wrong with creating working software to demonstrate a mathematical concept. Often mathematics is empowered by the tangible demonstration of the utility of the ideas expressed in code. The problem occurs when the code becomes the central activity and mathematics is subdued in priority. **Increasingly, the essential aspects of mathematics are absent from the demands of the research being replaced by software**. This software is viewed as an investment that must be transferred along to new generations of computers. The issue is that the porting of libraries of mathematical code has become the *raison d’etre* for research. This porting has swallowed innovation in mathematical ideas whole, and the balance in research is desperately lacking.

Instead of focusing on being mathematicians, we increasingly see software engineering and programming as the focal point for people’s work. Software engineering and maintenance of complex software is a worthy endeavor (more later), but our talented mathematicians should be discovering math, not porting code and finding bugs as their principle professional focus. **The discovery of deep, innovative and exciting mathematics promises to provide far more benefit to the future of computing than any software instantiation**. New mathematical ideas if focused upon and delivered will ultimately unleash far greater benefits in the long run. This is an obvious thing, yet focus is entirely away from this model. We are steadfastly turning our mathematicians into software engineers.

Let’s get to the crux of the problem with current thinking about software. **Mathematical software is like a basic plumbing of lots of codes used for scientific activities, but this model is deeply flawed**. It is not like infrastructure at all where the code would be repaired and services after it is built. This leads to the current maintainers of the code to not innovate or extend the intellectual ideas in software, which I would contend is necessary to intellectually own the software. **Instead a mathematical body of code is more like an automobile. The auto must be fueled and services, but over time becomes old and outdated needing to be replaced**. The classic car has a certain luster and beauty, but its efficiency and utility is far less than a new car. Any automobile can take you places, but eventually the old car cannot compete with the new car. This is how we should think about our mathematical software. It should be serviced and maintained by software professionals, but mathematicians should be working on a new model all the time.

For so much of what we do with computers mathematics forms the core and foundation of the capability. The lack of focus on the actual execution of mathematical research will have long lasting effects on our future. **In essence we are living on the mathematical (and physics, engineering, …) research of the past without reinvesting in the next generation of breakthroughs**. We are emptying the pipeline of discovery and impoverishing our future. In addition we are failing to take advantage of the skills, talents and imagination of the current generation of scientists. We are creating a deficit of possibility that will harm our future in ways we can scarcely imagine. The guilt lies in the failure of our leaders to have sufficient faith in the power of human thought and innovation to continue to march forward into the future in the manner we have in the

past. People if turned loose on challenging problems will solve them; we always have and past is prolog.

Progress is possible only if we train ourselves to think about programs without thinking of them as pieces of executable code.

― Edsger W. Dijkstra

The key to this notion is putting software in its proper place. Just as a computer itself, software is a tool. Software is an expression of intellect plain and simple. If the intellectual capital isn’t present the value of the software is diminished. Intellectual ownership is a big deal and the key to real value. Increasingly we are creating software where no one working on really owns the knowledge encoded. This is a massively dangerous trend. Unfortunately we are not funding the basic process where the ownership is obtained. **Full ownership is established through the creative process, the ability to innovate and create new knowledge grants ownership**. Without the creation of new knowledge the intellectual ownership is incomplete. An additional benefit of the ownership is new capability for mankind. The foundation of all of this is mathematical research.

*Our foundation is crumbling beneath our feet from abject neglect. Again, like everything else today, the reason for this is a focus on money as the arbitrator of all that is good or bad. We simply do what we are paid to do, no more and no less. No one is paying for math, they are paying for software, it’s as simple as that.*

Programs must be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute.

― __Harold Abelson__